So many journal articles – once published – just sit on a shelf and never get read by the very people who might benefit from any practical information gained by the research. That’s without thinking about the additional barrier often posed by overly complicated language or terminology. Research needs to be done for a purpose, and that information needs to be disseminated. So this is my attempt at doing a bit of that.
Reference: Constable, S., Grossi, B., Moniz, A., & Ryan, L. (2013). ‘Meeting the Common Core State Standards for Students with Autism: The Challenge for Educators’, Teaching Exceptional Children, 45(3), 6-13.
Country of publication/research: USA
Topic: Adaptations which can help autistic students meet the Common Core State Standards. These are details about what students should know in English Language Arts and Mathematics by the end of K-12.
Summary of content:
- The adjustments to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (now called the Every Student Succeeds Act) means that many students with SEND in mainstream classrooms will be expected to meet the Common Core State Standards.
- If teachers understand the three main psychological theories of autism (Theory of Mind, Executive Dysfunction, and Weak Central Coherence), they might be able to improve their teaching of these standards and personalise them to autistic students..
- Includes brief discussions on how the three theories might cause difficulties in the area of English – with a focus on reading – and gives examples of students and difficulties involving these.
- Theory of mind: May find it difficult to interpret the actions of others, may not understand the impact of own actions on others, may find it difficult to interpret thoughts, feelings and intentions of characters.
- Executive dysfunction: May have difficulty in planning, organisation, initiation, working memory, inhibition or impulse control, time management, and developing and using new strategies.
- Weak Central Coherence: May focus on a single aspect of something (a place, a topic, a piece of text, a picture, a documentary etc.) to the exclusion of other relevant details.
- Gives examples of how these areas of difficulty might be supported:
- Social Narratives (Social Stories and Comic Strip Conversations)
- Naturalistic Interventions (teaching skills in the daily routine and using interests as motivation)
- Peer-mediated instruction and intervention (using peers to explain and model behaviour and new skills)
- Visual supports (such as a graphic organiser)
Biases or issues with method:
Rigid view of autism – makes sweeping generalisations such as autistic children “don’t understand how actions impact other people”.
Only considers autistic students who are already accessing the Curriculum with their mainstream peers.
What to take from this for practical use:
Social Narratives (google: Social Stories and Comic Strip Conversations) can help with developing Theory of Mind and understanding.
Visual Supports can and should be used to support executive dysfunction.
Don’t forget to ensure that peers are helping each other – overreliance on an adult is not of benefit to anyone.